Definition | Instructional Design

Instructional Design

Instructional design is the practice of creating an instructional experience for users of a certain product, service or system. It creates instructions to enhance user experience, create efficiency in skills and time, effective uses of graphic elements to alleviate problems with the instructions and to make it appealing. Instructional design determines the current needs and state of the audience or learner, which then defines the end goal of the design. There are five phases of instructional design models, according to This system is called ADDIE which consists of:

  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Development
  • Implementation and
  • Evaluation.

1. Analysis

This step allows the researcher to determine the learning goals, objectives and problems associated with the audience. Their needs, values and current knowledge about the product or topic must be considered and evaluated. This stage allows the teaching method, barriers and timelines to be identified, evaluated and decided upon. During analysis, many learning theories are tested in order to determine the most effective use of instructional design for the target audience.

2. Design

During design, the information gathered from the analysis phase begins to develop into a specific plan of action. In doing this, a systematic process is developed which produces specific learning objectives for the audience. A mock up of the design is created as a result of the process completed beforehand. Testing and further research into the target market are carried out to assist the later stages of the design production. During design, many decisions are finalised and creates a narrow, focused path where plans begin to form.

3. Development

This is the section where the last two phases meet and are turned into a fully functioning instructional design. The plan that was made in analysis and design is given a physical form where further testing is done to ensure it is ready to be implemented into the market. This instructional design is similar to that of the final product.

4. Implementation

This is the action phase. All previous research, testing and development come together to create the final instructional design. Instructors of the product are given the material and are taught how to convey the message to an audience, ready for distribution. Once this is completed, the instructional material is placed out in the market ready for the learners.

5. Evaluation

This step is where the information is gathered from the learners after delivering it to them in the implementation phase. It is then evaluated for efficiency, knowledge, user experience and more. The two types of evaluation used in this step are formative and summative. The formative evaluation is derived from all previous phases in the process. Throughout each step, the end result is then evaluated which provides feedback for the creator and designer of the plan. The summative evaluation process involves the evaluation of the plan based on the previous syllabus, including feedback from the target audience – the learners – and the instructors. Based on the information found from this step, the plan is then revised and can be sent back to ensure all the necessary issues are seen to and fixed.

Instructional Design is an in depth process requiring extensive evaluation, testing and research to ensure the most effective user experience for the target audience.



Definition | Information Design

Information Design

Information design is the way in which information is presented, offering a clear and concise set of instructions for the user. It is about displaying information in an effective way for the user, as an alternative to attractive or artistic methods. Information design is found in many different formats and can display any type of information. Designers and design companies alike can specialise in this area of design such as the company Fathom. As described on their website, “Fathom Information Design helps clients understand and express complex data through information graphics, interactive tools, and software for installations, the web, and mobile devices”. Companies such as Fathom, help clients to effectively express their data or information in an effective way th


Information design can also be displayed in forms of a graphic, appropriately called an infographic. Infographics provide audiences with an engaging piece of material which also informs them about something usually, statistics or information that can be easily broken down and supported with illustration or computer generated graphics. One example can be found at which displays information about mobile phones during 2013. This infographic is quite large and contains a lot of information. As it is on the internet, it can be that big because people will scroll through it. However, if it was print, it wouldn’t work as well.

Another website allows users to create their own infographic and tell their story. An infographic is just the presentation of information in a visually pleasing way and there are no limits on what can be displayed. has a range of infographics for audiences to view.



Lecture | Week 5

Lecture  |  Week 5

This lecture was all about the interface and how we as designers must navigate through this to effectively create a successful interactive design by using the fundamentals and principles of interface and interaction design.

There was a lot of information about examples of interface design including navigation, buttons, search engines, blogs etc and how a designer designs them. Today, interactivity has surpassed the passive consumption that used to dominate the world, and has passed into the sharing and communicative phase of interactivity. It is a means by which we share information, collaborate and communicate as if it was real life interaction. Contemporary interactivity uses

  • hypertextual navigation
  • immersive navigation
  • registrational interactivity and
  • interactive communications.

These have all aided the definition of interactivity as the new media. The new types of interactivity have all been categorised into the above definitions.

There are also six fundamentals and principles that designers may adhere to, or break when designing for interactivity. These include

  • visual focus
  • problem solving
  • contextual
  • conceptual
  • wholeness and
  • linear/non-linear.

These principles provide loose guidelines for designers to ensure a product is designed with a specific user in mind. These all aid the proper design for users, ensuring a pleasurable experience. As stated by Nicholas V Luppa in the lecture, for an interactive design to be successful, there must be ‘good, clean, clear navigation’ as it is ‘critical to the success of any interactive experience’. The interface design must be so transparent that the user will not even realise that they’re using it. The transparency of the navigation and interactive design is the key to its success.


There was a lot of information to take in from this lecture, but it was all useful for when I begin designing my own project. I found this lecture will really help to understand my target audience and design an appropriate and successful interactive product. I will definitely be utilising the fundamentals and principles taught to create a well designed and transparent navigation system which aids my products structure and the user experience. Although there was a lot of information, it was all relevant to the upcoming project, which I found useful. There were two really inspiring interactive websites that were mentioned in the lecture which I found incredibly easy to use as they were designed well.

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